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Knowledge of the use of motor insulation materials

  First, the type of resin with insulation

  Epoxy resin, polyester resin, phenolic resin, diphenyl ether resin, polyimide, melamine formaldehyde resin, silicone resin, fluororesin, other resin.

  Second, phenolic resin - is based on phenols and aldehydes as raw materials, in the presence of the catalyst derived from the condensation of a class of resin collectively.

  Phenolic resin has the advantages of rich raw material source, simple process and low cost. It has good mechanical properties, electrical insulation properties and thermal stability. The output of phenolic resin is the first in the thermosetting resin. The most widely used resin in the production of electrical insulating material The

  Polymerization of phenolic resin:

  An acid or a base catalyst to form a hydroxymethylphenol having a condensation reaction functional group

  Acid-type catalytic phenolic resin reaction conditions - acidic catalyst, phenol excess (hydroxymethyl phenol can also occur between the condensation to produce ether bond, but unstable, will be thermal decomposition, in the molecular structure of thermoplastic phenolic resin, free hydroxyl Methylphenol is actually absent)

  Alkaline Catalytic Reaction Conditions - Alkaline Catalysts, Formaldehyde Overdose (Hydroxymethylphenol formed in alkaline media is relatively stable, so it reacts with formaldehyde to produce different dihydroxymethylphenols and trimethylol phenol)

  Process (Ingredients (Phenol Fumal Ammonia) - Preliminary Pre-Dop (Transparent Dark Red to Turbid Milk Yellow) - Vacuum (3 to 5 h) - End Point (Determination of Gelling Time)

  Note: Temperature and low temperature for a long time; Vacuum step by step vacuum; End point control 5 ~ 10min Determination of an increase in the amount of formaldehyde: resin yield increased; curing faster; free phenol decreased; faster response; resin softening point and viscosity increased.

  In the actual production, the molar ratio of phenol to formaldehyde is 1: 1.1 to 1.25, and 6: 7 (1: 1.16) is used industrially

  Modified Phenolic Resins - Aniline Modification: Normal Pressure Pre-Aggregation - Addition of Aniline - End Point - Vacuum De-Molecule - Dissolved - Discharged

  Modification characteristics: Butterin strong polarity, good molecular chain flexibility, good adhesion and good elasticity, high impact strength

  Disadvantages are mainly heat resistance and mechanical strength is not high

  Three, melamine formaldehyde resin

  Raw materials: melamine, formaldehyde melamine, also known as melamine, or melamine, C3N6H6, white crystals, the density of 1.573g / cm3, slightly soluble in ethanol, insoluble in water, ethylene glycol, glycerol and pyridine, insoluble in ether, Benzene and carbon tetrachloride.

  Product performance factors: temperature; reaction temperature; molar ratio; PH; resin uniformity

  Melamine formaldehyde resin: high reactivity and cross-linking; has been widely used as leather retanning agent; paper wet enhancer; water resistance; paint cross-linking agent; fabric finishing agent;

  Four, polyester resin

  (Polyester-saturated dibasic acid, glycol or dihydric phenol); bulk polyester-saturated dibasic acid, polyol generation; unsaturated polyester - unsaturated dibasic acid, diol generation)

  Production of materials: Alcohol with phenol (ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, 1,2-propylene glycol, glycerol, bisphenol A (diphenol propane))

  Acid and acid derivatives (phthalic anhydride, dimethyl terephthalate, maleic anhydride, fumaric acid)

  Five, epoxy resin

  Refers to a resin in which two or more epoxy groups are contained in their molecules and a cured body of a body structure can be obtained in the presence of a suitable reagent.

  Epoxy resin advantages: strong adhesion; low shrinkage; dielectric properties; good mechanical properties; good heat resistance; good chemical stability. Can be used as insulating paint, insulation laminates, plastic, insulating mica products, in addition to insulation and adhesive can also be used.

  Epoxy Resins: Glycidyl Ethers; Glycidides; Glycidamides;

  Halogenated bisphenol A epoxy resin features: (1) the general performance and bisphenol A epoxy resin similar (2) high arc and flame resistance. (3) the current application of more brominated epoxy resin.

  The initial condensate of the thermoplastic phenolic resin is reacted with epichlorohydrin and has more epoxy groups (more than two) on the molecule: (1) the cured product has a high crosslinking density (2) Strength and heat resistance. (3) adding phenol, polyamide (as curing agent, catalyst), can be high temperature curing reaction, adding acid anhydride and polyol (or added alone anhydride), can be cured at 90 ~ 115 ≧

  Glycidyl ester type epoxy resin Features: with a strong polarity of the ester group, good adhesion; viscosity is small; reactive activity; heat resistance than bisphenol A epoxy resin is slightly lower; water resistance, acid resistance, Low alkali resistance

  Glycidylamine epoxy resin: polyfunctional, high activity, high cross-linking density, heat resistance and adhesion to the metal than the bisphenol A type epoxy resin high, brittle, short storage period.

  The curing reaction of the epoxy resin is mainly through the ring-opening reaction of epoxy groups and curing.

  Amine Curing Reactions: Under normal conditions, an epoxy group reacts with an active hydrogen in the amine. The hydroxyl group promotes the reaction of the epoxy resin-amine (the hydroxyl group in the curing reaction, the hydroxyl group in the accelerator, the epoxy group in the epoxy resin and the solvent)

  Calculation of amine equivalent: amine equivalent = relative molecular mass of amine / number of active hydrogen atoms in amine molecule

  Percentage of amine curing agent = amine equivalent x epoxy value

  1) no accelerator is the characteristics of acid anhydride curing: curing speed affected by the amount of hydroxyl; esterification reaction consumption of acid anhydride, etherification reaction does not consume hydroxyl; epoxy groups need less than 1, generally 0.85

  2) When there is an accelerator, the tung gum forms an ion pair with the anhydride; the epoxy group is inserted into the ion pair, the carboxyl anion opens the epoxy group, forms the ester bond, and produces a new anion; the anion can be formed with the acid anhydride New ion pairs, or the epoxy ring, the reaction will continue

  Examples of acid anhydride curing agents: aromatic anhydrides, alicyclic anhydrides, aliphatic anhydrides, mixed anhydrides

  Calculation of acid anhydride curing agent: anhydride equivalent = anhydride molecular weight / anhydride number in the anhydride molecule

  Amount of acid anhydride (phr) = C x anhydride equivalent x epoxy value

  C = 0.85; when there is a basic accelerator, C = 1; when there is an acid accelerator, C = 0.55

  Six, polyimide resin

  Properties of polyimide: thermal stability; chemical stability; electrical properties; mechanical properties

  Polyimide classification: Benzene type polyimide, fusible polyimide, addition (or cross-linked) polyimide, modified polyimide (copolymer)

  The main preparation methods of polybenzene type polyimide are as follows: (1) Preparation of soluble polyamic acid (2) Cyclization

  Polyimide modified Purpose: Adhesion, abrasion resistance, processability, reduce costs, expand the scope of application

  Modification method: the introduction of other groups in the main chain, such as polyamide imide, polyester imide and so on.

  Polyimide performance: (1) low heat loss: purification, to avoid the introduction of pendant benzene ring or diamine benzene ring between the introduction of a variety of different genes, especially SO2, C (CH3) 2

  (2) good solvent resistance: the role of organic solvents and oils are stable. The stability of the base and superheated steam is quite low, both of which produce hydrolysis (the presence of C = O groups in the ring).

  (3) dielectric properties: dielectric constant of 3 to 3.5, by the frequency and temperature of small, volume resistivity 1015 ~ 1017,200 ≧ above the temperature is less affected. Tgd at room temperature (1 ~ 1.5) × 10-3, change the molecular chain structure of polyimide, tgd little effect.

  The dielectric loss is mainly due to the polarity of the imine ring gene C = O caused by (1) the location of the polar group is symmetrical, and are located in the ring, its activity is limited (2) tertiary amine nitrogen The three keys are CN keys, tend to offset the polarity

  (4) good mechanical properties

  Features: High indicators can be maintained over a wide range of temperatures.

  (5) between the benzene ring and benzene ring there are ether bond exists: is conducive to intramolecular rotation, providing flexibility in the molecular chain is strong, there is still a certain degree of flexibility, high impact toughness

  Seven, diphenyl ether resin

  1, the molecular structure: diphenyl ether resin is the main chain of diphenyl oxide (or diphenyl ether) with methylene cross-linked aromatic series of polymers, which is called diphenyl ether resin

  2, the advantages: thermal stability, dielectric properties, mechanical properties, chemical resistance

  3, application: resin plant production, insulation materials plant to buy resin or modified reproduction of insulating materials. Diphenyl ether resin is a quality and cheap H-class material; used as a dipping paint; used as a laminate resin; impregnated glass cloth, glass yarn, asbestos fabric; prepared reinforced plastic; used as mica adhesive

  Eight, silicone resin

  1, the industrial application of silicone polymer cable and mesh two structures

  2, classification: 1) Main chain composition: pure silicone resin (methyl, phenyl silicone resin, methyl phenyl silicone resin), modified silicone resin 2) curing reaction mechanism: condensation type silicone resin, Peroxide type silicone resin

  3, the preparation of organic silicon monomer: direct method, indirect method. Mainly by organochlorosilane hydrolysis condensation and thickening rearrangement. Generally from one to three hydrolyzable groups of low molecular weight compounds by hydrolysis condensation.

  Two methods

  - with metal organic compounds (often referred to as indirect method)

  Directly using metal silicon method (called direct method).

  4, the advantages and disadvantages of direct and indirect method:

  Advantages: Disadvantages: can not be made on the silicon atoms with a large group of compounds, but also more difficult to obtain a satisfactory rate of the process of the United States, the United States, the United States, the United States, the United States, Mixed alkyl halosilane.

  Indirect method: Advantages: product components are relatively simple, easy to separate, and can introduce a variety of types of organic; Disadvantages: the need to use a large number of solvents, not safe

  Today's large-scale organic silicon production plant, mainly to the direct method, while the use of other synthetic methods, to complement each other, give full play to their strengths, to minimize production costs.

  5, curing reaction mechanism:

  (1) Condensed silicone resin: Advantages: heat resistance, high strength, good adhesion, low cost; Disadvantages: easy foaming, functional control difficult; Uses: paint, coil impregnation, laminate, hydrophobic agent, adhesive

  (2) Add silicone resin: Advantages: Add silicone resin with no foam, deformation is small, easy to control the reaction; Disadvantages: easy catalyst poisoning;

  Uses: impregnated paint, laminate and so on.

  (3) peroxide type silicone: Disadvantages: the air will hinder the curing of the resin; Uses: can be used as impregnated paint, adhesives, laminates and so on. Advantages: no solvation, low temperature curing, long storage period

  6, the characteristics of organic silicon resin bonds

  Key can be large

  - General macromolecular backbone (C-C, C-O, C-N). The bond is not large, heat resistance is limited; and Si-O bond can be large, so polyorganosiloxane has a high thermal stability

  Side of the organic group

  Polyorganosiloxanes have some properties of inorganic polymers and organic polymers in both chemical and physical properties

  Can be used as a good electrical insulation materials, has been generally penetrated into the aerospace, defense, machinery, chemical textile, medicine and health, construction and other industrial fields, played its unique role

  The relationship between the composition and properties of the silicone resin:

  (1) the number of organic groups contained in the silicone resin R / Si value: linear silicone oil slightly larger than 2; silicone rubber close to 2; and silicone resin is less than 2, and more in the 1.0 to 1.7 between. The smaller the R / Si value, the better the dryness of the silicone resin (which can cure at lower temperatures), the smaller the heat loss, the film is hard, but the flexibility is reduced and the film becomes brittle;

  (2) the type of organic group contained in the silicone resin

  - methyl: can give silicone thermal stability, mold release, hydrophobic, arc resistance;

  - phenyl: to give silicone oxidation stability, it can be destroyed within a certain range of polymer crystallinity;

  - vinyl: can improve the curing properties of silicone resin, and to give the coupling;

  - tetraoxyphenyl: can improve the lubricity of the polymer;

  - phenylethyl group: can improve the blending of silicone resin and organic matter;

  - aminopropyl: can improve the water solubility of the polymer, while giving the coupling;

  - pentyl: can improve the hydrophobicity of silicone resin.

  3) The ratio of methyl group to phenyl group in silicone resin

  Typical organic groups of silicone are mainly methyl and phenyl

  - low content of phenyl, condensation reaction is quick, the film is soft

  - high phenyl content, hard film, large thermoplastic

  - The introduction of phenyl can improve the compatibility of silicone and pigment, but also improve the compatibility of silicone resin and other silicone resin and silicone resin on a variety of substrate adhesion.

  7, thermal stability: silicone resin is a thermosetting resin, one of its most prominent performance is excellent thermal oxidation stability.

  - Si-O-Si as the skeleton, the decomposition temperature is high, it can be 200 ~ 250 ≧ long-term use without decomposition or discoloration, a short time can withstand 300 ≧.

  - related to organic groups

  8, electrical insulation: not a polar group, so the dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent in a wide temperature range and frequency range is very small.

  The dielectric loss tangent at room temperature is about 2 × 10-3 and remains constant below 200 ° C. It is only about 3 × 10-3 when approaching 300 ° C.

  Silicone can be less carbonized components, so its resistance to arc and corona resistance is also very prominent (and PI equivalent)

  General silicone resin application limit of 200 ≧

  9, mechanical properties: silicone mechanical strength (bending, tensile, impact, scratch resistance, etc.) is weak.

  - Small intermolecular interaction force, low effective crosslinking density

  - increase the three or four functional chain content, can improve the degree of cross-linking, you can get high hardness and low elasticity of the film

  - soft, hard silicone resin with the appropriate match to meet the requirements of plastic

  - The use of organic modified silicone fingers to meet the hardness requirements

  10, weatherability: excellent weather resistance

  - Methylsilane is hardly absorbed against ultraviolet light,

  The weather resistance of the modified silicone resin increases with the increase of the silicone content

  11, hydrophobic: high hydrophobicity

  - has excellent hydrophobicity, its contact angle with water and paraffin similar (> 90 °), and is widely used as waterproof material

  - Silica intermolecular force is weak, the interval is also large, so the moisture transmission rate is greater than the organic resin film

  - It is also easier to remove the inhaled moisture, so that the electrical properties are easy to recover

  12, silicone in the application of insulating materials: silicone insulation paint, insulating paint, adhesive glue.

  13, silane coupling agent: vinyl silane, aminosilane, epoxy silane, mercaptosilane mercaptosilane

  Nine, organic fluorine resin

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